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RELATED PAPERS AND BRIEFINGS

"Note: Some information in these papers and presentations are out-of-date. Specifically, the No Build Zone is now within 4 km of each WSR-88D (changed 2015). For questions, contact wind.energy.matters@noaa.gov"

  • Click here to view the AMS 2013 Energy Conf Poster (PDF)
  • Click here to view the AWEA Wind Project Siting 2011 (PDF)
  • Click here to view the WindPower 2012 Paper and Poster (PDF)
  • Click here to view the WIND FARMS AND THE WSR-88D; 2013 UPDATE (PDF)
  • Click here to view the WindPower 2011 Final (PDF)
  • Click here to view the Weather Radar's Perspective on Wind Farms (PDF)

ROC PAPERS and BRIEFINGS

Burgess, D. W., T. Crum, and R. J. Vogt, 2008: Impacts of wind farms on WSR-88D Operations. Preprints, 24th Int. Conf. on Interactive Information Processing Systems (IIPS) for Meteorology, Oceanography, and Hydrology, New Orleans, LA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., Paper 6B.3.

Isom, B. M., R. Palmer, G. Secrest, R. Rhoton, D. Saxion, J. Reed, T. Crum and R. Vogt, 2008: Detailed Observations of Wind Turbine Clutter With Scanning Weather Radars, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 26, 894-910.

Vogt, R.J., T. D. Crum, E.J. Ciardi, R.G. Guenther, W.H. Greenwood, 2010: How NEXRAD Weather Radar Data Can Benefit the Wind Energy Industry. Preprints, WINDPOWER 2010, American Wind Energy Association Conference and Exhibition, Dallas, TX.

Vogt, R. J., T.D. Crum, J. B. Sandifer, E. J. Ciardi, and R. Guenther, 2009: A way forward, wind farm – weather radar coexistence. Preprints, WINDPOWER 2009, American Wind Energy Association Conference and Exhibition, Chicago, IL.

Vogt, R. J., T. D. Crum, J. B. Sandifer, R. Steadham, T.L. Allmon, G. Secrest, E.J. Ciardi, R. Guenther, R. Palmer, 2009: Continued Progress in Assessing and Mitigating Wind Farm Impacts on WSR-88Ds. Preprints, 25th Int. Conf. on Interactive Information Processing Systems (IIPS) for Meteorology, Oceanography, and Hydrology, Phoenix, AZ, Amer. Meteor. Soc., Paper 11B.6.

Vogt, R. J., J. R. Reed, T. Crum, J. T. Snow, R. Palmer, B. Isom, and D. W. Burgess, 2007: Impacts of Wind Farms on WSR-88D Operations and Policy Considerations. Preprints, 23rd Int. Conf. on Interactive Information Processing Systems (IIPS) for Meteorology, Oceanography, and Hydrology, San Antonio, TX, Amer. Meteor. Soc., Paper 5B.7.

Vogt, R. J., T. Crum, J. R. Reed, C. A. Ray, J. Chrisman, R. Palmer, B. Isom, D. Burgess, and M. Paese 2007: Weather Radars and Wind Farms – Working Together for Mutual Benefit. Preprints, WINDPOWER 2007, American Wind Energy Association Conference and Exhibition, Los Angeles, CA.

Vogt, R. J., T. Crum, J. Reed, J. Sandifer, R. Palmer, B. Isom, J. Snow, D. Burgess and M. Paese, 2008: Weather Radars and Wind Farms – Working Together for Mutual Benefit. Poster, American Wind Energy Association WINDPOWER 2008, Houston, TX.

Vogt, R. J., T. D. Crum, W. Greenwood, E.J. Ciardi, R.G. Guenther, 2011: New Criteria for Evaluating Wind Turbine Impacts on NEXRAD Radars. Preprints, WINDPOWER 2011, American Wind Energy Association Conference and Exhibition, Anaheim, CA.

Vogt, R. J., T. D. Crum, W. Greenwood, E.J. Ciardi, R.G. Guenther, 2011: Recent Efforts to Improve Estimates of and Mitigation of Wind Turbine Clutter Impacts on the WSR-88D. Preprints, 27th Int. Conf. on Interactive Information Processing Systems (IIPS) for Meteorology, Oceanography, and Hydrology, Seattle, WA, Amer. Meteor. Soc., Paper 3A.1.

OTHER REFERENCES

47 CFR Parts 1, 2, 15, 24 and 97, Guidelines for Evaluating the Environmental Effects of Radiofrequency Radiation, Federal Communications Commission, August 7, 1996.

29 CFR Part 1910--Subpart G-Occupational Health and Environmental Control Ch.1910.97 Nonionizing Radiation. (See also Subpart R- Special Industries Ch.1910.268 Telecommunications).

American Wind Energy Association, 2008: Wind Energy Siting Handbook, 183 pp.

American Wind Energy Association, 2008: Wind Energy for a New Era—An Agenda for the New President and Congress, 24 pp.

Cheong, B. L., R. Palmer, M. Xue, 2008: A Time Series Radar Simulator Based on High-Resolution Atmospheric Models, Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology, 25, 230-243.

Crum, T. D. and R. L. Alberty, 1993: The WSR-88D and the WSR-88D Operational Support Facility. Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 74, 1669-1687.

Department of Defense, 2006: Report to the Congressional Defense Committees, The Effect of Windmill Farms on Military Readiness, 62 pp.

Department of Energy, 2008: 20% Wind Power by 2030, Increasing Wind Energy’s Contribution to U.S. Electricity Supply, 248 pp.

Doppler Radar Meteorological Observations: Federal Meteorological Handbook No. 11, Parts A – D (contains general specifications and information on the NEXRAD radar) available at: http://www.ofcm.gov/fmh11/fmh11.htm

Doviak, R.J. and Zrnic, D.S. Doppler Radar and Weather Observations. Dover Publications Inc, Mineola, NY. 1993.

Kent, B. M. (AFRL), et al., April 2008: Dynamic Radar Cross Section and Radar Doppler Measurements of Commercial General Electric Windmill Power Turbines Part 1: Predicted and Measured Radar Signatures, IEEE Antennas and Propagation Magazine, Volume 50, No 2.

Mitre Corporation (JASON), 2008: Report to Department of Homeland Security, Wind Farms and Radar, 18 pp.

MIL-STD-461D, Requirements for the Control of Electromagnetic Interference Emissions and Susceptibility, U.S. Department of Defense, 11 Jan 93. (This is used for the peak RF field strength criteria).

NTIA (Dept of Commerce), July 2008: Technical Report TR-08-454, Assessment of the Effects of Wind Turbines on Air Traffic Control Radars, 19 pp.

QinetiQ Ltd, Sept 2003: Report to the United Kingdom’s Department of Trade and Industry, Wind Farm Impacts on Radar Aviation Interests—Final Report, Report W/14/00614/00/REP, 86 pp.

Simmons, K. M. and D. Sutter, 2005: WSR-88D Radar, Tornado Warnings and Tornado Casualties. Weather Forecasting, 20, 301-310.

Wilczak et al. Contamination of Wind Profiler Data by Migrating Birds: Characteristics of Corrupted Data and Potential Solutions. Journal of Atmospheric and Oceanic Technology. Volume 12, Number 3. June 1995.

USEFUL WEBSITES

American Wind Energy Association: http://www.awea.org/

Real-time NEXRAD Imagery: http://radar.weather.gov/

Weather Radar Information: http://www.srh.noaa.gov/srh/jetstream/doppler/doppler_intro.htm